Voting in the general election, 2016 edition

Today early voting started in my state, and because voting on November 8 would be a hassle, I made use of it.  It probably won’t surprise any of my regular online friends that my vote went to Hillary Clinton.

To be upfront, the Republican candidate would not have gotten my vote, even if they had been calm, sober, competent, and upstanding, as were John McCain and Mitt Romney.  I generally vote Democratic, mainly because I agree more with their vision of what our society should look like, and find the vision of many hardcore Republicans repugnant and, in the case of the Tea Party and “Freedom” Caucus people, outright dangerous.

I personally prefer a society where people can’t be discriminated against because they belong to the wrong religion, hold the wrong philosophy, have the wrong skin color or other ethnic marker, like the wrong kinds of sex, are the wrong gender or desire to be the wrong gender, or any other similar type of reason.  I know libertarians often share the same outlook on these social matters, but I find them far too focused only on discrimination from the government, and too unconcerned with discrimination from other social institutions such as churches, civic organizations, businesses, or society overall.

And given that scientific data and history show that none of us are as self sufficient as we might like to think, I also prefer a society with a robust cradle to grave social safety net, including universal healthcare, free (or low cost) education, more generous unemployment benefits, better care for those in poverty, and a wide variety of other measures, all of which I perceive are more likely to happen with Democrats in power.  At a minimum I perceive that the existing safety net, as incomplete as it is, won’t be further eroded if they hold at least one of branches of government.

I know conservatives often fear that providing this kind of safety net will somehow ruin our moral fiber or economic vitality, but that concern doesn’t hold up when you look at other developed democracies, most of which have stronger safety nets than we do, and none of which have descended into the kind of dystopian nightmare that we’re always assured will come about if we strengthen our own programs.

And I actually think we give up a lot of economic vitality by forgoing that robust safety net.  How many more entrepreneurs would we have if potential risk takers didn’t have to worry about losing health insurance for their children?  How many more people might follow their passion if doing so wasn’t so much more risky than simply working a job that, while safe, doesn’t maximize their contribution to society?

So that’s why I voted Democrat.  Now, it’s become very chic among progressives to bemoan that Hillary Clinton is our only viable option.  Many seem grudgingly willing to vote for her to avoid a President Trump, but are unhappy with Clinton herself.  That’s not my outlook.  My vote for her was moderately enthusiastic.

To be sure, Clinton is not perfect.  But from everything I can see, she’s spent a lifetime fighting for something like the vision I outlined above.  Yes she’s had to make compromises along the way, but if you’re not willing to get your hands dirty, you’re not going to make progress.  My perception is that Clinton is extremely intelligent, a ferociously hard worker, cares deeply about public policy, and is more prepared for the Presidency than just about anyone who has ever run for the office.  We can always imagine a more perfect candidate, but I think she’s in the upper tier of the people actually qualified to do the job.

But what about all the controversies?  What about her emails, paid speeches, the Clinton foundation, Benghazi, and all the rest?  I’ve followed all of these reasonably closely, and I can’t find anything actually nefarious in any of it (with the exception of Bill’s marriage infidelities, but holding that against his wife, the primary victim, is vicious stupidity).  Yes there are mistakes, but again we’re talking about someone who is human, not a public policy machine.  I certainly find nothing in any of it to justify all the hyperbolic outrage.

I can understand the amplified outrage from Republicans since it’s to their advantage to make as much political hay out any mistake that they can, but I’ve frequently been puzzled by the outrage from the left.  When I talk with progressives about Clinton, as we cross off each “scandal” that turned out to be nothing but a partisan witch-hunt, I’m struck by how often their attitude boils down to some version of “I just don’t like her” or “I just don’t trust her”.

Ultimately, I think Clinton’s problem, from a political perspective, is her gender.  I’m not talking about the knuckle dragging conservatives who might argue against the desirability of a woman President, but the unconscious bias many of us have against the idea of a woman commander in chief, even on the left, even among many women.

Clinton faces a trade-off that women vying for leadership positions today often face.  If they act in the traditional manner that society expects of women, they’ll be considered too timid for leadership.  If they’re strong and assertive, they’ll be perceived as annoying, grating, and bitchy.  I think we as a society need to outgrow this double standard, and stop holding women like Clinton to standards we’d never hold a male candidate to.

As I said above, Clinton has my enthusiastic vote, but even if I weren’t enthusiastic, she’s become the choice of sanity.  I’m not going to go on a rant about Donald Trump.  If you still see him as an acceptable option at this point, there’s nothing I can say that would change your mind.  For anyone else, including those holding their nose while voting for him, I’ll just note that a ranked voting system, particularly in the party primaries, might serve our country far better than the traditional first past the post system we now use.

I never seriously considered the third party candidates, Johnson for the reasons I laid out above on libertarians, and Stein because she has scant public leadership experience, and neither of them strike me as economically literate or particularly knowledgeable on public policy.  But also because only one of two people will be elected President on November 8, Clinton or Trump, and doing anything other than voting for Clinton increases Trump’s chance of victory.

Every election people say that the stakes are enormous in a bid to convince you to vote.  It’s often hyperbole.  But this time I don’t think it is.  Hopefully you’re registered, but if not, check your state’s deadlines, because many still allow you to register, and some allow same day registration.  This is not the year to sit out the election.  Consider doing early voting if there’s any chance you might not be able to make it on election day.

Your vote will matter.  Even if you’re in a non-swing state, contributing to the popular vote gives information about the country’s overall attitude toward the candidates, which might become important if election results end up being contested.  Don’t look at the polls and assume that the result is a foregone conclusion.  Polls can be wrong, particularly in catching late breaking changes.  Don’t take any chances with this election.  Do your part.  Get out and vote.  If you don’t, your opinion literally won’t count.

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The necessity of dexterity for civilization

Today’s SMBC highlights something about humanity that is often overlooked, something that any extraterrestrial intelligence that builds a civilization would have to have.

Click through for hover-text and red button caption.
Source: Saturday Morning Breakfast Cereal – The Mammal Conspiracy

We often talk about the intelligence of dolphins, whales, cephalopods, elephants, and other species.  But something all of these species lack is an ability to alter and control their environment, at least in any detailed fashion, a capability that is at the heart of building a civilization.  When you think about the evolutionary steps that were necessary for humans to have the dexterity that we do, it starts to look like we were the benefactors of a very lucky sequence of events.

First, there needed to be a three dimensional environment like the interlocking tree branches that made the primate body plan adaptive.  Second, the primate line needed to evolve an intelligent line (the great apes).  Third, there needed to be a change in environment that led to some of those apes coming down from the trees to tall grasslands where walking upright was adaptive, freeing their hands for work other than locomotion or hanging.

Only then do we have the stage set for human intelligence to evolve.  Of course, it’s completely conceivable for alternate factors to lead to the evolution of those capabilities.  But the fact that, despite a number of relatively intelligent species in the animal kingdom, it’s only happened once on Earth should give us pause before concluding that it’s at all common for a civilization building species to evolve.

Intelligence and dexterity aren’t the only factors by the way.  Mastery of fire as a tool also seems crucial, something that seems to rule out water dwelling species like cephalopods, who if they lived longer, might have a decent chance at manipulating their environment.

Fermi’s paradox is the question which asks, if extraterrestrial civilizations are common, why weren’t we colonized long ago?  The rarity of the combination of intelligence and dexterity might give a pretty grounded answer to that question, and that’s before we even consider the likelihood of other evolutionary milestones, such as sexual reproduction or multi-cellular life.

So, when thinking about the evolution of human intelligence, be grateful for the existence of jungles and grasslands.  Without them, we might not be here, at least not with enough intelligence to discuss our evolution.

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The problems with philosophical zombies

In any online conversation about consciousness, sooner or later someone is going to bring up philosophical zombies as an argument for consciousness being non-physical, or at least some portion of it.  The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy introduces the p-zombie concept as follows:

Zombies in philosophy are imaginary creatures designed to illuminate problems about consciousness and its relation to the physical world. Unlike those in films or witchcraft, they are exactly like us in all physical respects but without conscious experiences: by definition there is ‘nothing it is like’ to be a zombie. Yet zombies behave just like us, and some even spend a lot of time discussing consciousness.

Few people, if any, think zombies actually exist. But many hold they are at least conceivable, and some that they are possible. It seems that if zombies really are possible, then physicalism is false and some kind of dualism is true. For many philosophers that is the chief importance of the zombie idea.

This is the classic version, one that is identical, atom for atom, to a conscious being, but has no conscious experience.

The biggest problem with p-zombies is that the premises of the idea presupposes its purported conclusion, the conclusion that some aspect of the mind is non-physical.  If you remove the assumption of some form of substance dualism, the concept collapses.  It becomes incoherent, a proposition similar to asserting that we can sum 2+2 and not get 4.

So, right off the bat, this classic version of the thought experiment seems like a failure, a circular argument, and for a long time that’s pretty much all the thought I gave to it.  But I recently realized that classic p-zombies have a deeper problem.  Even if you fully accept the dualism premise, it has another assumption, one that does more damage and ultimately makes the concept incoherent.

For the p-zombie concept to work, conscious experience must be an epiphenomenon, something that exists completely separate and apart from the causal framework that produces behavior.  If consciousness is not an epiphenomenon, then its absence would make a difference in the p-zombie’s behavior, which is exactly what is not supposed to happen with a p-zombie.

Here’s the problem.  We know epiphenomenalism is false.  How?  Well, if it’s true, then how can we discuss conscious experience?  Somehow, the language centers of our brains send signals to the motor cortex that drive our speech muscles to make sounds relevant to it.  Somehow signals are sent to my fingers so I can type this blog post, or similar signals are sent to your fingers if you decide to comment on it.

Whatever else it might be, conscious experience must be part of the causal framework that eventually leads to behavior.  It has causal influence on the language centers of the brain if nowhere else, but that’s enough to have causal effects in the world.  Epiphenomenalism cannot be true.

Without epiphenomenalism, it seems like the classic premise of the p-zombie collapses, even for dualists.

371px-unknown_engraver_-_humani_victus_instrumenta_-_ars_coquinaria_-_wga23954Now, maybe we can rescue the zombie concept somewhat if we retreat a bit from the classic conception and instead think about behavioral zombies.  Unlike the classic version, b-zombies are allowed to be physically different from a conscious version of the being.  It’s only in behavior that this kind of zombie is indistinguishable.

A computerized b-zombie seems trivial to do if we only need to momentarily fool an observer.  However, the inability of any automated chat-bot systems to legitimately pass the most common (and weak) form of the Turing test demonstrates that the difficulty quickly escalates.  (In the most commonly pursued version of the test, success is fooling only 30% of human subjects after five minutes of conversation.)  Reliably fooling reasonably sophisticated observers for days, weeks, or months is not possible with any kind of current technology.

The difficulty here is that the longer the b-zombie can keep up the charade, the higher the probability that it isn’t actually a charade, that it is in fact implementing some alternate architecture for consciousness.  Of course, to a substance dualist, physically implemented consciousness isn’t real consciousness.  It’s a facade that mimics the results (including the ability to discuss conscious experience) but doesn’t include the actual qualia associated with it, no matter how much the zombie might insist that it does.

So unlike classic p-zombies, b-zombies are more logically coherent.  They avoid the problem with epiphenomenalism since they can replace the putative non-physical aspect of consciousness with a physical implementation.  But the conceptual existence of a b-zombie doesn’t have the same implications against physicalism, since even if consciousness is fully physical, it’s possible an alternate architecture to produce conscious seeming behavior might do it without conscious experience.

However, as with any conscious system, external observers could never actually access the putative b-zombies’s internal subjective experience, assuming it had one, no matter how much they knew about its internals.  Which means that there would be no objective criteria that could be used to ever know whether a successful b-zombie was actually a zombie or a conscious being.  (This was largely Alan Turing’s point when he first proposed the Turing test.)

This last point tends to make me view the idea of zombies overall as fairly pointless.  It’s the classic problem of other minds.  We can never know for sure that anyone other than ourselves are conscious.  It seems reasonable to conclude that other mentally complete humans are, but everything else is up for debate.  We’re forced to rely on our intuitions for babies, animals, or any other system that might act conscious-like.

Of course, caution is called for.  Historically, those intuitions have often led us astray.  Humans once saw consciousness in all kinds of things: rivers, volcanoes, storms, and many other phenomena that, because their effects often seemed arbitrary and capricious, led us to conclude that there was some god or spirit behind it.  We have to take care that our intuitions are well informed.

But consciousness, once we do establish that it can’t be an epiphenomenon, that it is definitely part of the framework that produces behavior, must have evolved because it had some adaptive value.  That implies that our use of behavior to assess its presence or absence is a sound one, as long as that assessment is rigorous.

Unless of course I’m missing something?

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The range of conscious systems and the hard problem

This is the fifth and final post in a series inspired by Todd Feinberg and Jon Mallatt’s new book, ‘The Ancient Origins of Consciousness: How the Brain Created Experience‘.  The previous posts were:

In the first post of this series, I noted that F&M (Feinberg and Mallatt) were not attempting to explain human level consciousness, and that bears repeating.  When talking about animal consciousness, we have to be cautious that we don’t project the full breadth of human experience on them.

While a zebrafish has sensory consciousness with its millions of neurons, its conscious experience is not in the same league as a dog’s with 160 million neurons in the dog’s cerebrum alone, much less that of humans with our average of 21 billion cerebral neurons.

Space invaders c. 1978 Source: Wikipedia

Space invaders c. 1978
Source: Wikipedia

One analogy that might illustrate the differences here is to compare 1970s era video games, running on systems with a few kilobytes of memory, to video games in the 1990s running on megabytes of memory, and then again to modern video games with gigabytes to work with.  In all cases, you experience a game, but the 1970s variety were blocky dots interacting with each other (think Pong or Space Invaders), the 1990s versions were cartoons (early versions of Mortal Kombat), and the modern version is like being immersed in a live action movie (the latest versions of Call of Duty).

Call of Duty Source: Wikipedia

Call of Duty c. 2014
Source: Wikipedia

Not that the zerbrafish perceives its experience as low resolution, since even its ability to perceive is itself low resolution.  It only perceives reality in the way it can and isn’t aware of the detail and meaning it misses.

All that said, the zebrafish and many other species do model their environment (exteroceptive awareness), their internal body states (interoceptive awareness), and their reflexive reactions to what’s in the models (affective awareness).  These models give them an inner world, which, to the degree it’s effective, enables them to survive in their outer world.

A lot of human mental processing takes place sub-consciously, which might tempt us to wonder how conscious any of the zebrafish’s processing really is.  But when human consciousness is compromised by injury or disease we become severely incapacitated, unable to navigate the world and take care of ourselves in any sustained manner, something the zebrafish and related species can do, indicating that consciousness is crucial and that organisms like zebrafish and lampreys have some form of it.

Considering all this has also made me realize that what we call self awareness isn’t an either-or thing, being either fully present or absent.  Modelling the environment seems pointless if you don’t have at least a rudimentary representation of your own physical existence and its relation to that environment.  Add in awareness of internal body states and emotional reactions, and at least incipient self awareness seems like an integral aspect of consciousness, even the most primitive kind.

(When I first started this blog, I was open to the possibility that self awareness was something only a few species had, mostly due to the results of the mirror test.  But I now think the mirror test is more about intelligence than self awareness, measuring an animal’s ability to understand that it’s seeing itself in the mirror.)

All of which seems to indicate that many of the differences in consciousness between us and species such as lampreys are matters of degree rather than sharp distinctions.  Of course, the difference between the earliest conscious creatures and pre-conscious ones is also not a sharp one.  There was likely never a first conscious creature, just increasingly sophisticated senses and reflexes, gradually morphing into model driven actions, until there were creatures we’d consider to have primitive consciousness.

This lack of a sharp break bothers many people, who want consciousness to be something objectively fundamental to reality.  Some solve this dilemma with panpsychism, the view that everything in the universe has consciousness, with animals just having it in much higher magnitude than do plants, rocks, or protons.

Others conclude that consciousness is an illusion, a mistaken concept that needs to go the way of biological vitalism.  Best not to mention it, but instead to focus on the information processing necessary to produce certain behaviors.  Many scientists seem to take this approach in their professional papers.

But I’m interested in the differences between systems we intuitively see as conscious and those we don’t.  Concluding that they’re all conscious, or that none of them are, doesn’t seem like progress.  I think the most productive approach is to regard consciousness as a suite of information processing functions.  This does mean there’s an unavoidable aspect of interpretation as to which systems have these functions.  But that type of difficulty already exists for many other categories, such as the distinctions between life and non-life (see viruses).

While F&M weren’t interested in tackling human consciousness, they were interested in addressing the hard problem of consciousness.  Why does it feel “like something” to be certain kinds of systems?  Why is all this information processing accompanied by experience?

I think making any progress on this question requires that we be willing to ask a closely related question: what are feelings?  What exactly is experience?

The most plausible answer is that experience is the process of building, updating, and accessing these models.  If we accept that answer, then the hard problem question becomes: why we does this modeling happen?  The second post in this series discussed an evolutionary answer.

This makes sense when you consider the broader way we use words like “experience” to mean having had extensive sensory access to a topic in order to achieve an expert understanding of it, in other words to build superior internal models of it.

I can’t say I’m optimistic that those troubled by the hard problem will accept this unpacking of the word “experience”.  The reason is that experience is subjectively irreducible.  We can’t experience the mechanics of how we experience, just the result, so for many the idea that this is what experience is, simply won’t ring true.

The flip side of the subjective irreducibility of experience is that an observer of a system can never directly access that system’s subjective state, can never truly know its internal experience or feelings.  We can never know what it’s like to be a bat, no matter how much we learn about its nervous system.

While F&M acknowledge that this subjective-objective divide can’t be closed, they express hope that it can be bridged.  I fear the best that can be done with it is to clarify it, but maybe that’s what they mean by “bridged”.  Those who regard the divide as a problem will likely continue to do so.  Myself, I’ve always regarded the divide as a very profound fact, but not an obstacle to an objective understanding of consciousness.

In conclusion, F&M’s broader evolutionary approach has woken me from my anthropocentric slumber, changing my views on consciousness in two major ways.  First, it’s not enough for a system to model itself for us to consider it conscious; it must also model its environment and the relation between the two, in essence build an inner world as a guide to its actions.  Second, that modeling can be orders of magnitude less sophisticated than what humans do and still trigger our intuition of a fellow conscious being.

Which seems to lower the bar for achieving minimal consciousness in a technological system.  Unless we find a compelling reason to narrow our definition of consciousness, it seems plausible to consider that some autonomous robotic systems have a primitive form of it, albeit without biological motivations.  Self driving cars are the obvious example, systems that build models of the environment as a guide to their actions.

Unless of course I’m overlooking something?

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The neural mechanics of sensory consciousness

This is the fourth in a series of posts inspired by Todd Feinberg and Jon Mallatt’s new book, ‘The Ancient Origins of Consciousness: How the Brain Created Experience‘.  The first three were:

So, at this point in the series, we’ve talked about what is primary or sensory conscious, how it evolved, and the three types: exteroceptive consciousness of the outside world, interoceptive consciousness of internal body states, and affective consciousness of emotional reactions.  But how does it actually happen?  How is it actually implemented in an animal’s brain?

A quick note before we get into this: while there’s undoubtedly enormous value in looking at how consciousness arises in biological systems, I think we have to keep in mind that the way it is specifically implemented there may only be only one of many particular ways to achieve it. Indeed, F&M (Feinberg and Mallatt) note that within the realm of biology itself, there appear to be a wide range of architectures among differing species.

There’s a tendency in these types of discussions to assume that there’s a type of magic involved in the precise mechanisms.  But what I think is far more important are the capabilities, capabilities which may be achievable in other ways.  But maybe this is just my own bias toward functionalism showing.

The fundamental unit of the nervous system is the neuron, a cell that specializes in communication.  Neurons typically have thousands of branching tendrils with connections, called synapses, to the tendrils of other neurons.  Synapses get stronger with more use and weaker with non-use.  (Neurons that fire together, stay together.)  Some synapses excite the receiving neuron, and some inhibit it.  A neuron essentially sums up all the incoming signals from its inbound excitatory and inhibitory synapses and, if excited to a certain threshold, fires off a signal to its outbound synapses, to other neurons which are summing their inputs and deciding if they’ll fire.

Visual sensory path Image credit: KDS444 via Wikipedia

Visual sensory path
Image credit: KDS444 via Wikipedia

The perceptual senses start off with a layer of neurons that fire because of some physical excitation.  For vision, these are photoreceptor neurons on the retina that are sensitive to light in various ways.  The pattern of signals they receive from incoming photons create a neural firing pattern, which triggers signals that go up the optic nerve to the brain, where the overall current mental image of the world is constructed.

The earliest layers of neurons in visual processing are principally excited by things like lines, edges, colors, and other primal aspects.  Subsequent layers become more selective in what excites them, perhaps being triggered by certain shapes or a certain kind of movement.  As the signals propagate up the layers, the neurons become progressively more selective about what triggers them, until we get to clusters of neurons that may only become excited when a certain person’s face is seen, or maybe a certain kind of animal, or any specific object.

F&M identify these neural hierarchies as a crucial element in biological consciousness.  Each sense has its own set of hierarchies, but there is substantial crosstalk between them, and it’s probably reasonable to surmise that there are effectively hierarchies of the hierarchies.

Each concept in the brain has its own twisting winding hierarchy that culminates in clusters of neurons which only light up for that concept.  (In reality, anything but the simplest concepts probably have innumerable hierarchies spread over different senses.)  At the lower levels, the conceptual hierarchies overlap substantially, but the pattern of the neurons firing at those levels determine which neurons at the higher levels light up.  As we go higher up in the hierarchies, they overlap less and less.

This concept is sometimes derisively referred to as the idea of the “grandmother neuron”.  But it’s important to understand that there is no image of grandmother in any one neuron (or of whatever the specific concept is).  That image exists throughout the entire hierarchy.  It’s also unlikely that the top of a hierarchy ever converges to only one neuron.  It may converge on clusters of neurons that fire in specific patterns.  It may be that the same clusters firing in different patterns is the top of a different concept hierarchy.

Neurologist Antonio Damasio calls these culmination points convergence-divergence zones.  In both his and F&M’s views, the hierarchies can be activated from the bottom up, from incoming sensory activation, or from the top down, when crosstalk from some other hierarchy activates a higher point, leading to downward propagation of the hierarchy.  This is likely part of what happens when we remember or imagine an object we’re not currently sensing.

My way of understanding the overall significance of this framework is that the breadth of the sensory layers provide the resolution of what can be perceived in the lower levels, as well as the overall number of concepts that can be perceived at the higher levels.  But the depth of the hierarchies, how deep they can go, probably determines just how much abstracted meaning a system can extract from the sensory information, in other words, how much understanding it can achieve.

F&M investigate how deep these hierarchies need to be for what we’re calling sensory consciousness to exist.  They tentatively conclude that the minimum number of layers is five for vision, but may only be three for the other senses.  They end up splitting the difference and using four as the average minimum.  But they fully admit that this is not at all an area that is fully understood, and that the actual minimums may be much higher.  My own intuition here is that there’s no fact of the matter distinction, just increasing effectiveness as the layers increase.

Obviously brains with more neural substrate will have an advantage, although we always have to remember that absolute size isn’t the crucial factor.  (A substantial portion of an elephant’s or whale’s sensory breadth is taken up with processing all of the interoceptive information coming from their vast body.)  But all else being equal, broader and deeper neural hierarchies will enable broader and deeper sensory consciousness.  Human consciousness and intelligence, with its symbolic and abstract thought, likely requires very deep, integrated, and nested hierarchies of hierarchies.

One quick note about the conceptual hierarchies.  The description above may make it sound like their formation is entirely contingent on incoming sensory information.  But it’s important to remember that minds don’t start as blank slates.  They start with a genetic predisposition to recognize certain concepts.  For example, healthy human babies have a built in capacity to recognize human faces.  Many hierarchies come pre-wired or primed for action, although possibly refined by later events.

Anyone in the know will recognize that this description is woefully oversimplified.  It’s a heavily summarized version inspired by what F&M describe in their book, with insights that I picked up from Antonio Damasio’s book, ‘Self Comes to Mind‘.  There is an enormous amount of important detail I’m leaving out.  The only goal here was to give you a taste of it.  If you want more, I highly recommend their respective books.

In the next and final post of this series, we’ll swing back to the hard problem of consciousness, and discuss to what extent we may have made any progress on it.

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Types of sensory consciousness

theancientoriginsofconsciousnesscoverThis is the third in a series of posts inspired by Todd Feinberg and Jon Mallatt’s new book, ‘The Ancient Origins of Consciousness: How the Brain Created Experience‘.  The first two were:

With this post, we’re going to get into the different types of sensory consciousness that F&M (Feinberg and Mallatt) identify in their book.  They identify three types:

  • exteroceptive
  • interoceptive
  • affective

The consciousness I discussed in the last two posts was exteroceptive consciousness, that is, consciousness about the outside world and its relation to the organism.  This type of consciousness requires distance senses such as vision, hearing, and smell, as well as more immediate ones like touch and taste, although these last two senses sit on the border between exteroceptive and interoceptive consciousness.

Exteroceptive consciousness involves building image maps of the environment and objects in it.  “Image” here doesn’t necessarily mean a visual image, although that type of image usually looms large in this type of awareness.  But it can also mean audio images, smell images, or touch images.  These images are formed from the signals coming in from their related senses.

From the initial images, image maps, or models, are constructed, eventually from information integrated across the senses.  These image maps are isomorphic with patterns in the environment, to varying degrees of success.  They are what form the inner world that conscious organisms live in.

Interoceptive consciousness is awareness of internal body states.  Similar to exteroceptive consciousness, it involves taking data from sensory input and constructing isomorphic image maps.  But in this case, it’s senses about the internal state of the body, covering things like the feeling of muscles, the stretch of tissues, the state of the stomach, etc.  The overall image constructed here is one of the body.

This resulting image map seems very similar to Antonio Damasio’s proto-self body image.  In fact, F&M cite Damasio approvingly, although noting that whereas Damasio’s approach was to study the human brain, theirs is broader, looking at the various architectures in the animal kingdom.

The last type of consciousness is affective or limbic consciousness.  The thing about the information in the other two types of awareness above, is that it has no valence, no value attached to it, no assessment of whether the sensory information is good or bad for the organism.  Affective consciousness is where this valence is introduced.

There are, broadly, two types of affects: positive and negative.  For positive, think pleasurable or attractive.  For negative, think aversion, fear, pain, etc.  All emotions and inclinations are essentially variations of these two affects.  F&M are cautious in using the word “emotion” here since it comes with so much baggage, with people meaning different things by that word.  But at their most basic level, emotions are affects.

My way of understanding this is that the emotion itself is a mental reflex, that earlier in evolution led to immediate action, but now surfaces as an affective feeling in conscious organisms, a mental state of preparation for a particular action, which may be overridden if there are other competing affects arising at the same time.  It is affective consciousness that provides the primal interpretation of sensory information in the exteroceptive and interoceptive models as either good or bad.

When we see something, such as a rainbow or an onrushing tiger, our knowledge of its appearance and perceived location comes from exteroceptive consciousness, but our appreciation of the beauty  of the rainbow or the danger of the tiger comes from affective consciousness.  Of course, we don’t subjectively experience these as separate systems, because the information processing happens below the level of our awareness, creating a subjectively unified experience.

When did these types of consciousness evolve?  Exteroceptive is the easy one here.  It’s evolution was heralded by the development of eyes during the Cambrian explosion.  As I mentioned in the first post of this series, high resolution eyes (as opposed to more primitive light sensors) imply mental imagery, which imply isomorphic modeling, models of the environment, a worldview.

There may be some debate about which distance sense evolved first, but eyes, unlike the other sense receptors, are part of the central nervous system.  In their earliest incarnations, they appear to be right next to the brain, if not actually part of it.  For this and other reasons, F&M see vision as being an early development, with possibly the neural hierarchies for vision being subsequently duplicated for the development of the other distance senses.

There are many theories about when affective consciousness developed.  Some put it at the very beginning of sensory consciousness in the Cambrian.  Others push it back to various stages of development such as the rise of amphibians, or of mammals, or even anatomically modern humans, giving a vast range of possible dates, from as early as 550 million ago to as late as 200,000 years ago (when more or less modern humans emerged).

Since affects are a crucial aspect of sentience, figuring out when it developed and which species have it is important.  F&M’s approach is to examine cases of behavior that require affective consciousness, such as learned responses to punishments and awards, behavioral trade-offs, frustration with insurmountable problems, and self-delivery of analgesics when in pain.  Having identified these behaviors, they then look at experiments testing various species to see if they exhibit these behaviors.

Of course, no one can test an extinct Cambrian species, and using modern animals as stand ins for earlier ones in evolutionary history is risky, but the morphological similarities between the simplest modern vertebrates and pre-vertebrates to fossil remains reduces the uncertainty.

In experiments, all vertebrates: fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals, demonstrated behaviors that required affective consciousness.  But animals resembling pre-Cambrian forms: C-elegans, flatforms, and Chordates generally did not.  The evidence then, according to F&M, points to affective consciousness evolving more or less concurrently with exteroceptive consciousness, in other words, during the early Cambrian, 550-520 million years ago.

Interoceptive consciousness is a more difficult matter.  F&M found fragmentary evidence that the neurological pathways for it exist in all vertebrates, but were forced to admit that the evidence is sparse and uncertain.  In particular, the relevant pathways are poorly studied outside of mammalian species.

And there are surprising gaps, such as with pain.  Pain requires input from the affective system to actually be pain, but having an affect of pain requires certain types of interoceptive signals.  Pain seems like it would be one of the most fundamental aspects of feeling, but there appear to be good evidence that fish do not feel certain types of it.  They do seem to feel sharp pain, the pain of an injury immediately when it happens, but don’t appear to feel the long burning variety, the one that causes suffering.

F&M speculate that this might have something to do with their environment and feeding needs.  Fish often can’t heed continuous agonizing pain, but have to keep moving to survive.  However, for land animals, signalling that tells them they are damaged and need to find a place to hide and heal can be a survival advantage.

So the weight of the evidence is that exteroceptive and affective consciousness are ancient, along with aspects of the interoceptive variety, and therefore widely prevalent in vertebrates.  (F&M also discuss the possibility of consciousness in cephalopods and arthropods, including many insects, although they express reservations on whether insect brains have the necessary complexity.)

The next post will discuss how the image map models may be constructed.


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Predators and the rise of sensory consciousness

This is the second post in a series inspired by Todd Feinberg and Jon Mallatt’s new book, ‘The Ancient Origins of Consciousness: How the Brain Created Experience‘.

The first post in the series was: What counts as consciousness?

Life appears to have gotten started fairly early in Earth’s history.  The oldest known fossils are now dated to be about 3.7 billion years old.  Given that the Earth itself is only around 4.5 billion years old, and that considerable evolution would have had to happen for the earliest fossils to exist when they did, life probably got started as soon as conditions were conducive for it.  (Note: “as soon as” on geological time scales.)

For billions of years life evolved and gradually became more complicated.  Around 1.5 billion years ago, the first multicellular life emerged.  Just as cells had communication mechanisms, motile (animal) multicellular life began to develop its own communication mechanism: nervous systems.  The first nervous systems were basically nerve nets, more or less evenly spread throughout the animal.  They enabled the organism to respond to things like pressure somewhere on its outer layers, or to noxious or attractive chemicals.  Nerve nets basically just had reflex action, direct responses to environmental stimuli.

By the end of the Ediacaran geological period, around 550 million years ago, bilateral animals (with two duplicate halves) had appeared, with a nerve cord running down their center.  Animals of this period either didn’t have self locomotion or had only a very primitive form of it.  They generally all fed on a thick green mat of microbes that existed on the ocean floor.

Animals with the central nerve cord (chordates) did have centralized reflexes.  Some had light sensors on their head and other limited senses.  None of these senses had enough resolution to do more than give small hints on what was happening in the environment.  Which was fine, because the organisms at this point didn’t have enough processing power in their nervous system to use more information anyway.

But in a few tens of millions of years, during the Cambrian period, not long on geological scales, the animal kingdom would suddenly explode into a much wider range of body types.  The onslaught of development would be so sudden and rapid, that geologists and paleontologists call the period the Cambrian explosion.  Most significantly for this post, primary sensory consciousness would develop.

Why did evolution suddenly speed up during this time?  There are various theories, but most evolutionary biologists seem to think the most plausible reason is an arms race.  The term “arms race” is a military one, referring to two competing military powers increasing their armaments because of what the other competing power has, resulting in both having an escalating inventory of weapons far in access to what either needs aside from countering each other.  One historically recent example was the Cold War era missile arms race between the USA and Soviet Union.

In the context of evolution, “arms race” basically refers to selection pressures that come from competition rather than from the rest of the environment.  What was the arms race in the Cambrian?  Predation, animals eating other animals, suddenly became prevalent.  This might have happened because of overpopulation and depletion of the microbe mat mentioned above, or maybe due to some other unknown change.

A Cambrian arthropod Image credit: Nobu Tamara via Wikipedia

A Cambrian arthropod
Image credit: Nobu Tamara via Wikipedia

Whatever caused it, it put much more selection pressure on prey species, and eventually on other predators as prey became more elusive and scarce.  Evolution seems to have responded in a variety of ways.  Some species developed hard shells, making themselves more difficult to consume.  Others burrowed deeper into the sea floor.  Some developed hard shells but stayed mobile, holding an advantage because of them.  These were the arthropods, and they appear to have been the main predators of the period.

But one group went the way of speed and agility, the ability to flee or evade.  This involved developing an inner skeleton, unlike the outer exoskeleton of the arthropods.  They developed a central support structure, a backbone, and became the first vertebrates.  But their movement strategy required distance senses, such as eyesight, smell, and hearing, to collect information on the environment, and robust central coordination to make use of that information for movement, movement to evade predators, to fight or try to escape.

Of course, arthropods, as the predators, soon needed to respond in kind, although their brains didn’t rise to the level of sophistication that the vertebrates did.  Part of this might have been because their exoskeletons required periodic moulting, constraining their growth.  Nevertheless, both groups went on to develop complex brains and, arguably, consciousness.

Both developed high resolution eyes (relative to the light sensors that had existed in the Ediacaran), that allowed them to build image maps of the environment.  As I mentioned in the last post, these weren’t human level maps, but they were still effective models that allowed the animals to make predictions.  They had built inner worlds which now guided their behavior.  Although their inner experience was at a far lower resolution than ours, it increased their chances of survival.

There would be other major milestones in cognitive development.  Jawed vertebrates would soon have larger brains.  The first land animals would have larger ones yet.  The mammalian cerebrum would eventually come along and dramatically increase the information in the internal models.  They would continue to grow in size and sophistication, eventually leading to the rise of social species in the last 100 million years.

The biggest developments, from our point of view, would be the rise of primates, and eventually homo sapiens.  Interestingly, it seems that human intelligence was the result of another arms race, this time among humans.  Human intelligence was likely heavily selected over the last million years for social intelligence, rather than any other environmental factors, with a higher level of social intelligence, a better theory of mind for one’s peers and oneself, resulting in increased reproductive success.  Eventually it would result in modern humans, with human levels of consciousness.

But sensory consciousness started in the Cambrian with the rise of image maps, internal neural patterns isomorphic to patterns in the environment (to varying levels of success), or what I prefer to call models, inner worlds that dramatically increased the causal information, the scope of the environment that the organism could respond to.  And we owe that start to the rise of predators.

The next post will get into types of sensory or primary experience.

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